The honeycombs make up a natural beehive, which is normally found under the branches or in the hollow of a trunk.
The honeycomb is composed of many hexagonal cells that are built with wax produced by special glands that the bees have on the abdomen.
The cells act as "pantry", inside which you can keep honey and pollen or as a "cradle" in which to breed the larvae (children of bees).
In both cases, the cells are sealed by bees with a thin wax cap: the operculum.
The beekeepers build and give the bees a house called "rational hive". Each arnia contains several frames, each of which acts as a honeycomb.
The frame, in fact, is composed of a wooden building and a thin wax sheet on which the bees build the cells.
The hive is divided into two parts:
- the nest is the place where the colony raises the larvae and preserves the reserves of honey and pollen for the winter period
- the melarium is the moving part of the arnia where the bees store honey in the looms when the nest is full
The beekeepers then extract the honey from the melarium without causing suffering or disturbing the community of bees that resides in the nest. During the year, the beekeeper's job is to periodically check the hives, monitoring the honey stocks in the nest, the family's health and the activities carried out by the queen.
A new bees colony born when the queen leaves the colony with a large number of worker bees.
This swarm is called "primary" and is formed by the old queen. If there are more virgin bees in the remaining family, it is possible a new reproduction called "secondary". Natural reproduction is a predominantly spring phenomenon, which typically lasts two to three weeks depending on local conditions. Occasionally, however, reproductions may occur out of period, even in late season, usually caused by the Queen's health problems.